"Integrated in All Respects": Ed Friend's Highlander Folk School Films and the Politics of Segregation
"Integrated in All Respects" consists of Ed Friend's film of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Highlander Folk School in Monteagle, Tennessee during Labor Day weekend in 1957 and the Georgia Commission on Education's propaganda broadside that features Friend's photographs and stills from his film. Founded in 1932, the Highlander Folk School served as an adult education center to promote social and economic justice. By the 1950s, the school began to focus on the Civil Rights movement and trained many of the movement's activists including Septima Clark and Rosa Parks. Sent by the Georgia Commission on Education, an anti-integration state committee founded during Marvin Griffin's administration, Ed Friend filmed the anniversary festivities without revealing his motives. Labor and civil rights activists such as Ralph Abernathy, Myles Horton, Martin Luther King, Jr., Aubrey Williams, Charles G. Gomillion, Rosa Parks, Abner W. Berry, Pete Seeger, Harry Schneiderman, Ralph Helstein, A. T. Walden, and Maurice McCrackin are featured in the footage. Friend also documented the integrated social activities during the weekend including dining, swimming, and dancing. Much of the footage and many stills were incorporated into the Commission's broadside linking the school and its civil rights activities with the communist movement.
African Americans; Civil rights movements; Highlander Folk School; Women